OATS A cereal that is well adapted for cultivation in cold, wet climates and , until the 19th century, was a basic food in Scotland, Wales, Scandinavia, Germany and Brittany. Oats are used mainly to make savoury or sweet broths and gruels, and porridege, eaten for breakfast with milk. They are also used for making biscuits (cookies) and pancakes, particularly in Anglo-Saxon countries. Numerous traditional Scottish, Welsh and Austrian recipes use oats in stews, ragous, stuffings for meat, a coating for herrings, and for charcuterie.
Oats are processed to make oatmeal, in various grades. The largest and coarsest is pinhead, then rough (course), medium, fine and superfine. Pinhead oatmeal can be used ¾ make course porridge and in haggis; rough oatmeal, to make oatcakes and biscuits and medium oatmeal. To make cakes and parkin. Fine oatmeal can be used for thickening soups and sauces, for stuffings, and for making Scottish brose and bunnocks.
Rolled oats or out flakes are made by steaming and rolling pinhead oatmeal, and instant or quick-cooking rolled oats are made by applying greater heat to the grains. Jumbo rolled oats are made by rolling the whole oat grain. Rolled oats are used in breakfast dishes , such as muesli, and to make biscuits, such as flapjacks.
OCTOPUS A fairly large cephalopod moluse, measuring up to 80 cm (32 in.). The octopos has a head with a horny beak and 8 equal-sized tentacles. Its flesh is fairly delicate in flavour, but it must be beaten for a long time and then blenched before use. Octopus can be prepared like lobster, cut into pieces and fried, or simmered a la provencale and served with saffron rice.
Octopus a la provencale
Clean an octopus, remove the eyes, and beak, and soak it under running water for a long time if it has not been prepared by the fishmonger. Drain it and beat well to tenderize the flesh. Cut the tentacles and body into chunks of the same length Blanch the pieces in court-bouillon, drain them and pat dry. Them brown them in oil in a saucepan, with chopped onion. Season with salt and pepper, add 4 peeled, seeded and chopped tomatoes, and simmer for a few minutes. Moister with ½ bottle of dry white wine and the same quantity of cold water. Add a bouquet garni and a crushed garlic clove. Cook, covered, for at least 1 hour. Sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve in a large bowl.
OENOLOGY The study of the manufacture and maturing of wines (from the Greek oinos wine). In France the title oenologist was officially recognized by law on 19 March 1958, and it is possible to study for a diploma in the subject. An penologist is a wine technician, whereas an eonophile is a wine lover whose knowledge may or may not be as extensive. In France a wine shop that specializes in the local wines is known as an oenothiegue.
OEUIL-DE-PERDRIX Used as a description tasting them and name for pale pick wines, it means literally partridges eye. It can refers to a distinctive wine from Neuchatel. Switzerland, produced from Pinot Noir.
OFFAL (VARIETY MEATS0 Th edible internal parts and some extremities of an animal which are removed before the carcass is cut up. It therefore includes the head, feet and tail, and all the main internal organs. The offal from poultry is called the giblets.
The pig provides the greatest variety of offal used in cooking brawn (a jellied mould made from the head and ears),; various liver pates; sausage made from tehchitterlings (small intestine) and the digestive tract; and black pudding (blood sausage). The lungs (lights), spleen (melts) and heart are less highly valued, but other offal provides simple and tasty dishes pigs’ trottes (breaded and grilled), kidneys (sautéed ) and liver (fried).
The ox provides much edible offal, the commonest dishes being made from the tongue (boiled or pickled), stomach (intestines and tripe), and feet and tail (in pot-au-feu and ragout). The brains are less delicate than those of calves or lambs. Heffer’s lives can also be cooked, but the kidneys and spleen are less popular.
Veal offal is regarded as a delicacy mainly brains, bone marrow, kidneys, liver and sweetbreads, but splendid dishes can also be made from the head and feet.
Lamb and sheep offal is also good and the kidneys, liver, testicles, brains, heart., spleen, intestine, stomach and feet can be cooked in many ways.
OIL A fatty substance that is liquid at normal room temperatures. Although there are mineral oils. Such as paraffin, and animal oils, such as whale oil, seal oil and cod-liver oil. It is the vegetable oils that are used in cooking. These are extracted either from seeds such as sunflower, rapeseed, soya or cotton-seed, or from fruits, including olives, avocados and nuts.
Sesame and olive oils have the oldest origins. Records show that they were both used by the ancient Egyptians. The ancient Greeks, too, used olive oil and in Athens the olive was a sacred tree, symbol of the city’s life. Oil was used next only for food but also as a fuel to provide light, and its use as a fuel continued for many centuries in Europe.
Most vegetable oils are low cholesterol, being made up mainly of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, a few vegetables oils, such as palm oil and coconut oil, contain almost as much saturated fatty acid as animal fans. These oils solidify at normal room temperature in the same way as butter or lard (shortening).
Unsaturated fatty acids are considered less harmful to the body than saturated fatty acids, which may contribute to the incidence of coronary heart diseases and other health problems. Some vegetables oils and some fish oils are also important for their essential fatty acid content. These are fats which the body cannot manufacture for itself; examples are omega 3, found in cod-liver oil and walnut oil, and omega 6. Found in unrefined sunflower seed oil, olive oil and sesame oil.
Oily extracted from a single vegetable species are known as ‘pure’ the term ‘vegetables oil indicates that the product is a mixture. Some mixtures may include oils with differently fatty acid profiles. Most oils sold in shops have been refined, with the result that their flavour and smell have been removed, leaving then quite neutral. However, there are unrefined oils that have been obtained through cold pressing and these retain the flavour of their vegetable origin. The most widespread example is extra-virgin olive oil.
§ Use oils, sometimes mixed with butter, provide the fatty medium for many cooling methods. They are an ingredient in salad dressings, cold sources and condiments and they are also used to preserve foods, such as cooked and smoked fish, goat’s cheese and sun-dried vegetables. They are used in marinades to moisten and flavour main ingredients, particularly poultry, game and meat.
Refined vegetable oils are the most suitable for heating to high temperature, as they have the highest smoke points and can withstand the heat best. Grapeseed oil has the highest smoke point at 230°C (450°F) followed by rapeseed oil at (225°C (435°F). Corn oil, groundnut (peanut) oil, refined olive oil and soya oil are also all good frying oils, each with a smoke point of 210°(410°F). The highest temperature needed to deep-fry potatoes is 190°C (375F). It is best not to heat the same batch of oil to this temperature products, such as biscuits (cookies and crackers), confectionery and prepared dishes.
Unrefined vegetable oils, particularly extra-virgin olive oil, are chosen for their flavour and can be used as flavouring ingredients in their own right . such oils are used to dress hot and cold vegetables and to finish soups, stews and speciality dishes, such as ribollita or gazpacho. They are not recommended for frying as their smoke points tend to be fairly low. The following are the most commonly used oils worldwide.
§ CORN (MAIZE) OIL. Without a particular falvour, this is always sold refined. It is rich in polyunsaturated and is widely used in the United States and in northern Europe.
§ COTTONSEE OIL No particular flavour and always sold refined. This oil has a high smoke point and good polyunsaturated fat content. It is widely used outside Europe as a cooking agent, and in the west it is used an ingredient in margarine, baked goods and proprietary dressings.
§ GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) oil No particular flavour and always solid refined, it remains liquid at quite low temperatures, 5°C (41°F). it is widely used in Asian cooking and in the United States.
§ OLIVE OIL EXTRA-VIRGIN unrefined olive oil and refined olive oil are widely used in southern Europe and their use is widening to the rest of Europe, North America and Japan .
§ RAPESSED (CANOLA) OIL No particular flavour and always sold refined. It has a high monounsaturated fatty acid content and high levels of omega 6. It is widely used in northern Europe and increasingly in North America.
§ SOYA BEAN ON. This is a refined oil with a light neutral flavour, suitable for all seasonings. Widely used around the world.
§ SUNFLOWER’ SEED OIL. This refined oil has a light, almost neutral, flavour with a low solidification point. It has a high polyunsaturated fatty acid content and is widely used for that reason. The unrefined oil has a very definite, slightly earthy flavour.
§ Besides the above major oils, there are others which are more localized or less well known.
§ AVODAO OIL . This is a relatively new oil, produced from fruit grown in California. Made from the flesh of the fruit without the aid of chemical solvents, it has a high monounsaturated fatty acid content.
§ COCONUT OIL this has a high saturated fatty acid content and solidifies at much higher temperatures than other vegetables oils. It is used locally in India, Indonesia and the Philippines s a cooking medium and in the rest of the world in the manufacture of margarine and other mixed oils.
§ GRAPESEED OIL This is produced mainly in the south of France and is sold refined. It has a very high smoke point and is recommended for deep-frying. It has a very high polyunsaturated fatty acid content.
§ HAZENUT OU. This is a relatively new oil and it was first manufactured in the 1970s. small quantities are made in France with nuts from France, Italy and Turkey, it is used to contribute a nutty flavour to
§ PALM OIL There are two kinds of palm oil – one made from the thick fibrous layer on the outside of the fruit and the other from the kernel inside. The oils re produced and widely used in West Africa and Indonesia. In the West the oil is used in the production of margarine, biscuits and other manufactured foods.
§ POFFY-SEED OIL. This has a very fine flavour when it is left unrefined. It is used in salads and for crudities, particularly in northern France. It is known as Buille blanched in France.
§ PUMPKIN (OR MARROW-SPEED) OIL. This has as strong, slightly sweet flavour and is not suitable for all dishes,
§ RICE BRAN OIL. This light refined oil, with little flavour has a high unsaturated fatty acid content and good levels of antioxidants.
§ SAFFLOWER OIL A refined oil with little flavour and a high unsaturated fatty acid context, this is widely used in Asia.
§ SESAME OIL . There are two types of sesame oil. One uses roasted seeds to produce a dark oil with an extremely strong flavouring. This is widely used to give added flavour to Chinese and Asian dishes – a few drops will give a strong taste of sesame. The other uses uncoated seeds to make a well flavoured, but much lighter, oil which can be used in much the same way as nut oils.
§ WAINUT OIL This has a characteristics nutty taste and is used principally in dressings and seasonings. France has a tradition of producing walnut oil and the best oils come from the nuts of native trees. However, walnuts may also come from turkey, India or the United States, Walnut oil has a high polyum-saturated fatty acid, including omega 3. It has the disadvantages of turning rancid quickly.
§ OTHER OILS other oils include sweet almost oil which is used in the manufacturer of confectionery and in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries pine seed oil and pistachio not oil, both less common and used for dressings, mustard oil, which is used in India and the Far Fast in the same way as ghee (clarified butter); and paraffin oil, which is used to coat-dried fruit thinly, to prevent it from sticking together. Paraffin oil is a hydrocarbon and not a vegetable oil - if consumed in a quantity, it can act as a strong texture.
OILLE Originally, a large stockpot; the word was then applied also to the contents of the pot. This sense is still preserved in Spain, with its olla podrida, and in certain regional dishes from southwestern France, such as couillade. Ouillad and oulade.
Until the 19th century a pol-er-oille was a large silver pot in which a substantial soup was served.
OISEAU SANS TETE The French name, meaning literally headless bird. For a slice of meat (veaf, beef or mutton) that is stuffed, rolled, tied, possibly barded, and usually cooked in a sauce or braised. In flanders, vogels zonder isop (a eteral translation of the French term) are slices of beef stuffed with sausagement (or a rasher or slice of bacon seasoned with spiced salt0, simmered in stock falvoured with aromatic herbs, served with mashed potatoes, and coated with the cooking prices thickened with becurre manie. Alternatively they may be cooked with onions and beer, as in a carbonade.
Oiseaux sans tete
Bone a shoulder of mutton or lamb and cut it into 8 slices. Beat them trim the edges and seasoned with salt and pepper. Make a stuffing from breadcrumbs (soaked in milk and squeezed dry) and plenty of finely chopped parsley, chives, chervil and tarragon and a raw egg. Put some of this stuffing in the centre of each slice of meat and roll it up. Put a small sprig of rosemary on top of each roll and wrap it in a piece of caul fat, preferably lamb’s . Fry 250 g (9 oz. 3 cups) chopped mashrooms in a mixture of butter and oil, drain them and spread them over the bottom of an overnproof dish. Arrange the rolls side by side on top of the onions. Cover the casserole with buttered greaseproof (was) paper and cook in a preheated oven at 320°C (425°F, gas 7 ) for 25 minutes.
Just before serving mix ½ teaspoons curry powder with a little crème fraiche. Pour this sauce over the rolls and serve.
OKRA A tropical plant widely cultivated as a vegetable. The most widespread species, also known as ladies’ fingers, gumbo and (in France) bamia or bamya, is grown for its pods, which have longitudinal ridges and are either elongated – 6-12 cm. (2 ½ - 1 ½ in) long - or short and squat – 2 – 4 cm (2 ½ - 1 ½ in) long it contains small seeds and a mucus substances, from New Guinea, is cultivated for its sorrel leaves.
Okra, which originally came from Africa or Asia and was introduced into the American by the black slaves, first appeared in Europe in the 17th century as a typical ingredient of Caribbean cookery.
Okra, which originally came from Africa or Asia and was introduced into the America by the black slaves, first appeared in Europe in the 17th century as typical ingredient of Caribbean cookery.
Okra is used before it is ripe, when it is green and pulpy and the seeds are not completely formed (ripe seeds were formerly used as a substitute for coffee) it can be obtained fresh throughout the year and is also available dried and canned. When quickly fried in every hot oil, tender young okra retain their texture and do not become slimy, so stir-frying and deep frying are useful methods. They can be cooked in butter or cream, braised with bacon, fried pureed, or prepared with lime or rice. Okra are added to tajines, foutou and Caribbean ratatouille, and eaten with mutton in Egypt and chicken in the United States. When added early on in the cooking, the okra thicken the cooking liquor; added at the end, the young whole vegetables remain crisp.
Okra a la creole
Wash the okra carefully. If using dried vegetables, soak them in cold water for about 12 hours. Top and tail (stem and head0 and put in a saucepan. Cover them amply with cold water and cook for 10-25 minutes, skimming from time to time. Drain and dry them, Peel and finely slice 150 g (5 oz) onions and cook in 2 tablespoons oil until soft. Add the okra and brown very gently. Scald, peel and seed 4 large tomatoes. Crush them and add to the okra with 2 crushed garlic cloves, salt, pepper, a little cayenne and powdered saffron. Cover and leave to cook very gently for at least 1 hour (more if using dried okra0. Adjust the seasoning. Serve in a dish with a border of rice a la creole.
OKROCHKA A Russion soup made from kuass chome-made beer) and vegetables, served cold with quartered hand-boiled ) eggs, chopped herbs and cucumber, and sourced (sour) cream. The accompanying garnish may be a salpicon of leftover beef fillet, while chicken meat, pickled tongue and ham, or oil diced crayfish tails and salmon.
OLEAGINOUS PLANTS Fruits, seeds plants with a high fat content. They include walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, pistachios, peanuts olives and the seeds of sesame, sunflower and rape. Besides their main use as a source of oil, oleginous plants and seeds play an important role in cookery and gastronomy. They are served raw, grilled (broiled), roasted (fried) or salted as snacks to eat with aperitifs and they feature in many exotic recipes, as well as in more mundane cooking. Like all fatty substances, oleginous plants and seeds combine well with green vegetables and salads.
OLIVE The small oval fruit of the olive tree, widely cultivated in Mediterranean regions. The fruit ripens from green to black; the fleshy pulp, enclosing an oval stone (pit), is the source of olive oil; and the whole fruit, stoned (pitted) or stuffed, is used in cookery as a flavouring ingredient or hors d’oeuvre.
Originating in the East, the olive tree is extremely long-lived its history is bound up with that of the Mediteranean, which since biblical times has been its native habitat. Large quantities of olives were consumed by both the Greeks and the Egyptians, who credited the goddess Isis with the discovery of oil extraction. In Greek mythology. Pallas Athene struck the Acropolis with her spear and out sprang the olive tree; she then taught men how to cultivate it and make use of its fruits. The romans to, venerated the olive tree. Through ancient times, both olives and olive oil were essential in nutrition and food preparation.
The Romans took the olive tree to all the Mediterranean countries, together with the techniques of oil extraction and the preparation of tables olives. It continues to be widely grown in all countries of the Mediterranean basin, where the fruity taste of the olive is very apparent in the cooking. Span is the leading producer of table olives, followed by Turkey, Greece and Morocco, Small quantities are also produced in Italy. Portugal and in southern France. The olive tree was introduced into Latin France. The olive tree was introduced into Latin America in the 16th century and from there into California in the 19th century. California is now an important producer of table olives.
Fresh olives have a very bitter taste and are not edible in the raw state. The bitterness must be removed in a curing process before the olives can be eaten. There are two basic types of table olive, green and black (ripe). Table olives are an ingredient of many bors d’oeuvre and Mediterranean dishes, including pizzas, mezze from Greece, tapas from Spain, dishes a la nicoise and a la provencale and so on . They are eaten widely as cocktail snacks, but are also used in cookery, either plain or stuffed, for preparing duck, daubes, paupeettes and many other dishes.
§ GREEN OLIVES These are gathered before they are ripe, treated to remove the bitter taste, then rinsed and pickled in brine. In France, varieties of green olive include the Pichoine from the Gard region, Corsica and the Bouches-du-Rhone; Lucques from the Herault and Aude regions; and Salonenque from the Bouches-du-Rhone.
§ BLACK (RIPE) OLIVES These are harvested when fully ripe, they are not treated with an alkali but are pickled in brine and then sometimes in oil. Two of the best varieties grown in France are the ‘Nyons’ from the Drome and the Vaucluse, and the ‘Cailletier’ from around Nice.
§ OTHER OLIVE PRODUCTS OLIVES are also marketed in many other ways. ‘Cracked’ green olives, called cacada, are pickled in brine seasoned with herbs and spices. Green olives in water (a l’eau) are repeatedly soaked in water to remove the bitterness they have a strong fruity taste, but retain a slight bitterness, Green olives are often prepared stuffed with anchovies, sweet 9bell0 peppers, pimineto or almonds. Black olives pickled in wine vinegar (from Kailamata in Greece) are treated with brine mixed with oil and vinegar. Black olives preserved dry in alt have a good fruity, slightly bitter taste, but do not keep well. The black olives from Morocco., washed and dried in the sun, are lightly salted, then packaged or barrelled in oil, Finally, black olives can simply be dried in the ort. Today these traditional methods are supplemented by the mass production of table olives using faster chemical treatments which leave lose some of their black colour during this process and so they are dyed with ferrous gluconire.
Cabbage charlotte with olives
Blanch a cabbage, then cook in water and put through a vegetable mill. To the resulting puree add 100 ml (4 fl. oz 7 tablespoons) water, I egg yolk and a little grated cheese. Stone (pit) and coarsely chop 30 black (ripe) olives and add them to the cabbage puree with a stiffly whisked egg white. Mix well. Butter a charlotte mould and sprinkle with dried breadcrumbs. Pour the mixture into the mould and cook in a preheated oven at 220°C (425°F, gas 7) for about 30 minutes.
Split some green olives, without crushing them, by giving them in light tap with a mallet on the top end. Cover with cold water and leave them for 1 week, changing the water every day. Then put them into brine, prepared using 1 kg (2 ¼ lb) salt per 8 litres (14 pints, 9 quarts) water, flavoured with bay leaf, fennel, the skin of an orange and some coriander seeds, and cover with fennel. Leave the olives for 8 days before eating.
Duck with olives.
Stone 250 g (9 oz. 1 ½ cups) green olives, blanch them for 10 minutes in boiling water, refresh them under cold water and drain. Rub salt and pepper on the inside and outside of a duck weighing about 2 kg (4 ½ lb) and truss it. Slice 200 g ( 7 oz) slightly salted bacon into small strips, blanch for 5 minutes in boiling water, refresh and dry, then fry in 40 g (1 ½ oz. 3 tablespoons) butter. Drain.
Fry the duck until golden in the same butter, then remove it. Still using the same butter, brown 2 onions and 2 carrots, both finely chopped. Add 250 ml (8 fl. oz. 1 cup) meat stock, 1 tablespoon tomato puree (paste), a pinch of crumbled thyme and bay leaf, and 1 tablespoon chopped parsley. Season with salt and pepper, cook gently for about 20 minutes, then strain.
Pour this sauce into a large flameproof casserole, add the duck and the bacon, cover the pot and bring to the boil on top of the stove. Transfer the casserole to a preheated oven at 230°C (450°F, gas 8) and cook for 35-40 minutes, then add the olives and continue cooking for at least another 10 minutes. Arrange the duck on a hot serving dish, cover it with the sauce, and arrange the olives all around it.
Olives stuffed with anchovy butter
Wash and dry some salted anchovies, remove the fillets and pound to a puree. Mix this with butter, using 65 g (2 ½ oz. 5 tablespoons) butter for 5 anchovies. Season with pepper and mix everything well together. Put the anchovy butter into a piping (pastry) bag with a ver narrow plain nozzle and stuff the olives. Keep them in the refrigerator until ready to serve as appetizers or with crudities.
OLIVE OIL Olive oil has a history stretching back before the written word, but the first records oil its use are found in ancient. Egypt. Olive oil probably original in the Middle East, from where its production gradually spread to other parts of the Mediterranean basin. Olive oil is now produced in all countries that have a Mediterranean type climate, including parts of Australia . New Zealand, South Africa and South America, California is also becoming an increasingly important centre of production
There are two main grades of olive oil: extra virgin olive oil and olive oil, Extra-virgin olive oil is unique among cooking oils in that it is made directly from the fresh juice of the olive fruit. The fruit is picked, milled and pressed and the resulting juice is separated into oil and water. If the oil meets the required standard, it is bottled and sold as extra-virgin olive oil; if the oil fails the chemical and taste requirements for extra-virgin status, it is refined and bottled as olive oil. Extra-virgin olive oil is virgin olive oil with less than 1% acidity. Ordinary olive oil has about 15% extra-virgin oil added to it to give it a mild flavour of olives.
Olive oil has always been valued for its flavour, but in accent years it has also been highlighted for its value in a healthy eating regime. Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, which are thought to be beneficial in protecting against corounary heart disease.
The olive oil with the best flavour is the freshest and youngest. The oil may be filtered to give a bright clear colour or it may be felt unfiltered, when it may be quite cloudy. unfiltered oil will deteriorate more quickly. Colour is no indication of quality or flavour. Olive oil varies in flavour from light and delicate to strong and pungent; It may be sweet, bitter or peppery. In general, the olive oils of Spain and France tend to be less aggressive than those of Greece or central or central Italy. However, northern Italy. Sicily and Crete ma also produce lighter styles of oil. California oils vary from very mild to quite pungent. Some oils carry the words ‘first pressed’ or ‘cold pressed’ on the label. These phrases do not mean very much today, as modern equipment (both hydraulic and centrifugal) is such that there is no second pressing and the extraction can be temperature controlled.
Using olive oil Olive oil is the traditional cooking medium of the Mediterranean and it can be used in almost any culinary application that requires fat. Ordinary olive oil is best for high temperature cooking and deep frying as it has a high smoke point. Extra-virgin olive oil has a lower smoke point, but it will stand up to flash-frying, grilling, basting and pot-roasting. Extra-virgin olive oil is used to dress salads, cooked vegetables and fish dishes and to finished soups and stews. It is also served the beginning of the meal on its own with bread or crudites.
Its definite taste makes olive oil a flavouring ingredient in its own right and it is worth taking care to match the flavour and strength of the oil to the other ingredients in the dish. While mild and sweet oils, such as those from Provence or liquria, are particularly good with fish, strong salad ingredients, such as rocket (arnugula) or water cross will need a more pungeant olive oil from Tusgany or the Greek mainland. Olive oil can also be used in baking to make cakes, cooks and biscuits, and for the short-term preservation of roasted vegetables wild mushrooms and goat’s cheeses.
Olive oil should be used as soon after purchased as possible. If you need to store it, choose a cool, dark cupboard.
OLIVER, RAYMOND French chef (born Langon 1909); died Paris 1990). His father, who had been a chef at the Savoy in Londo, kept a hotel in Bordeaux, where Oliver started has apprenticeship. In 1948 he and Louis Vaudable, owner of Maxim’s (which had been closed when France was Liberated), reopened the Grand Vetour restaurant and restored it to its former glory. In 1950 Oliver become the manager of the restaurant and its success was assured.
Raymond Oliver can be regarded as one of the great innovators and reformers of French cuisine, as evidenced by such dishes as red mullet with basil butter in puff pastry, ragout of pike and crayfish with aniseed, sautéed chicken in honey vinegar, stuffed guinea fowl Jean Cocteau, or the simpler Lampreys a la la bordelaise and other classic regional dishes.French cuisine has gained a great deal from his humour and his deep knowledge of the culinary arts, which he demonstrated in television programmes. He also lectured in other countries and was the author of various books.
OLIVET A small soft French cow’s milk cheese (40% fat), made in the small town of Oliver Bleu) or ash-covered. The cheese is straw-coloured, with a fruity or spicy taste, and is made in the flat discs 12-13 cm (4 ½ -5 in) in diameter and 2-3 cm (about 1 in) thick. Balzac like to eat with walnuts and chilled wine.
OLIVET CENDRE Soft cows-milk cheese (40% fat) with a natural crust covered in ashes after being reopened for 3 months in a container filled with wood ash. Olivet cendre has a more pronounced, soapier taste than Olivet.
OLLA PODRIDA A Spanish soup whose name, literally translated, means ‘rotten soup’. Numerous regional varieties are found using local produce. The ingredients include various pulses, vegetables, meat and sometimes fruit. This is a country dish that has evolved from the traditional cocido.
OMBIAUX, MAURICE DES Belgian writer and gastronome (born Beauraing 1868; died Paris 1943). Nicknamed the ‘Prince of Walloon story-tellers’ and Cardinal of gastronomy’. He wrote many books which were published in the 1920s.
OMBRINE A sea fish found in the Mediterranean and the Bay of Biscay. It grows to a length of I m (39 in) and is silvery in colour, with golden or grey-blue stripes on the back and a marked lateral stripe. It has a short beard on the lower jaw. The flesh is as good as of not better than (that of bass, and the same recipes can be used to cook it.
OMELETTE A sweet or savoury dish made from beaten whole eggs, cooked in a frying pan, and served plain or with various additions. The word comes from the French lamelle (thin strip) because of its flat shape; previously it was known as alumette and then alumette (some authorities claim that the word has a latin origin, ova mellila, a classic Roman dish consisting of beaten eggs cooked on a flat day dish with honey.)
The success of an omelette depends as much on the quality of the pan and the quantity and distribution of the butter as on the cooking. A large variety of different ingredients may be mixed with the omelette or added just before serving, with a ribbon of sauce. An omelette can be served , either flat or folded, as an enree or a dessert, depending on whether it is savoury or sweet; it is nearly always served hot. It can also be used as a garnish for soup and some Chinese rice dishes.
Omelettes were known during the Middle Ages. In the 17th century one of the most famous omelettes was omelette du cure, containing soft carp roes and tuna fish, which Brillat-Savarin much admired. Nowadays, a particularly popular French omellette is the variety known as Mere Poulard (after the owner of the Hotel Poulard in Mont-Saint-Miched in the early 1900s). The omelette owes its fame to the high quality of the Norman butter and eggs as well as to a special knack in the making. Some chefs recommend beating the yolks and the whites separately to obtain a lighter and foamier omelette. Among the difference types of savoury omelettes are :
§ Omelettes cooked with a flavouring. The flavouring is mixed with the beaten eggs before cooking
§ FILLED OMELETTES The hot filing is spread on the omelette, which is then folded over and slipped on to the serving dish.
§ GARNISHED OMELETTES Filled omelettes with some garnish placed on the top, if the garnish is accompanied by a sauce or bound with butter, it is poured into a slit made in the omelette. It is usual for a garnished omelette to be surrounded by a ribbon of sauce.
§ FLAT OMELETTES Made like plain omelettes but with fewer eggs; they are cooked for a longer time and turned over in the pan halfway through cooking. The result is a sort of thick pancake which can be served cold, accompanies by the same garnishes as a plain omelette.
§ Sweet omelettes are usually filled with jam or poached fruit flavured weigh a liqueur; they are sprinkled with sugar and glazed in the oven, or they may be flamed.
Souffle omelettes are really a type of souffle cooked in a shallow dish (rather than in a deep souffle dish). They can be flavoured with liquer, fruit or coffee.
Beat 8 eggs lightly and season with salt and (if liked) freshly ground pepper; 2-3 tablespoons milk or 1 tablespoons single (light) cream can be added to the beaten eggs. Heat 25-40g (1 – 1 ½ oz, 2-3 tablespoons) butter in a scrupulously clean pan, preferably non-stick. Raise the heat and pour in the beaten eggs. Stir them with a fork, drawing the edges to the centre as soon as they begin to set. When the omelette is cooked, slide it on to a warm serving dish, folding it in three. Rub a piece of butter over the surface to make it shiny.
Slice some chicken livers, sauté them quickly in butter and bind them with some reduced demi-glace sauce. Fill the omelette with this mixture and garnish with a ribbon of demi-glace flavoured with Madiera.
Slice or finely dice some cal’s or sheeps kidneys, sauté them in butter and bind them with some reduced demi-glace sauce flavoured with Madeira. Fill the omelette with this mixture. Garnish with a ribbon of Madeira-flavoured demi-glace.
Cook an omelette and fill it with 3 tablespons asparagus tips cooked in butter. Fold it on to a hot serving dish. Pour some cream sauce around it.
Omelette with black pudding
Grill (broil) some black pudding (blood sausage) and skin it while it is still hot. Mash the meat with a fork. Separate some eggs and whisk the yolks and whites separately, then fold them together. Cook the omelette and fill it with the black pudding before folding it.
Salsify omelette with Brussels sprouts
Cook some salsify in white wine, dice it, braise it in butter and bind with some reduced veloute sauce. Fil an omelette with the mixture and serve it surrounded with noisette potatoes and Brussels sprouts sautéed in butter. Reduce some demi-glace sauce, stir in some butter and pour the sauce around the dish.
Other recipes. See chasseur, chatelaine, duxelles, japanese, maintenon, portugoise, rouennaise, Saint-ubert, shrimps and prawns.
Slice some courgeous (zucchiniz) into thin rounds and sauté them in butter in a frying pan. beat the eggs with chopped parsley, salt and pepper, pour tehm into the pan over the courgettes and cook the omelette on both sides like a thick pancake.
Omelette a la grecque
Beat the eggs, adding some chopped onions softened in butter and diced sweet (bell) pepper’s. make 2 flat omelettes. Put on of them on a round plate and spread with a layer of very hot finely chopped braised mutton or lamb: cover with the second omelette. Pour some tomato sauce seasoned with a little garlic round the omelette, sprinkle with chopped parsley and moisten with noisette butter.
Omelette a la Sainte-Flour
Brown some sliced onions and blanched bacon strips in pork fat. Beat the eggs, adding the onions and bacon, and make 2 flat omelette. Put one of them on a dish and spread with a layer of braised chopped cabbage. Cover with the second omelette and surround with a ribbon of tomato sauce.
Omelette a la verduriere
Cut some sorrel and lettuce into very fine strips and cook them gently in butter. Beat the eggs and add the sorrel and lettuce with some chopped parsley, chervil and tarragon. Cook like a large pancake. Sprinkle with noisette butter.
Omelette Du Barry
Steam some very small florets of cauliflower. Take them out while they are still a little crisp and fry them in butter. Pour on the eggs, beaten with salts, pepper and chopped chervil, and cook like a large pancake.
Brown 3 tablespoons diced aubergines (eggplants) in oil in a frying pan. beat the eggs together with some diced tomato gently fried in oil, chopped parsley and a pinch of finely chopped garlic. Pour the eggs over the aubergines and cook like a large pancake.
Beat 6 egg yolks with 2 tablespoons double (heavy) cream and season with salt and pepper. Whisk the egg whites to stiff peaks and fold into the mixture. Cook like a large pancake.
Finely dice some potatoes and fry them in butter. Beat the eggs and add the potatoes and some chopped parsley. Cook like a large pancake.
Beat the eggs with chopped parsley and chervil, salt and pepper and make 2 flat omelettees. Put one on to a round ovenproof dish and cover it with a ragout of mussels, prawns (shrimp), small clams or other shellfish. Poached and bound with shrimp sauce. Cover with the second omelette. Coat with a cream sauce flavoured with shrimp butter and glaze in a hot oven.
Braise enough spinach leaves in butter to provide 4 tablespoons cooked spinach. Mix with 8 beaten eggs and cook like a large pancake.
Other recipes. See diplomate, jardmiere, memnagere, mon-bray, nicoise, paysanne, romaine.
Fill an omelette with morels in cream. Turn it into a dish and garnish with bunches of asparagus tips cooked in butter. On top, arrange some slices of mushroom which have been tossed in butter. Surround with a ribbon of supreme sauce and serve at once while very hot.
Make a very creamy omelette and fill it with mushroom duxelles. Slide it on a to a flamproof dish, then garnish the top with poached eggs (one per person) – choose small eggs and keep them underdone. Mask with Mornay sauce to which finely shredded mushroom have been added. Sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese and brown quickly under a hot grill (broiler).
Other recipes see espagnol,e fines, herbes, hangroise, parisienne, Rossini, vieur.
Omelettes cooked with their Flavouring anchovy omelette.
Soak 3 anchovy fillets until free of salt and rub them through a sieve. Add the anchovy puree to 8 eggs and beat together. Cook the omelets as usual. Garnish with a criss-cross pattern of fine strips of anchovies in oil.
Slice 4 artichoke hearts and sauté them in butter until they are half-cooked, without letting them brown. Add the artichoke slices to 8 eggs and beat together; cook the omelette as usual. It can be garnished with a row of sliced sautéed artichoke hearts and surrounded with a ribbon of reduced veal stock.
Add 2 tablespoons diced aubergines (eggplants), sautéed in oil, to 8 eggs and beat together. Cook the omelette.
Fry 3-4 tablespoons diced baon in butter and beat into 8 eggs. Cook the omelette. It can be garnished with 6 thin strips of bacon fried in butter.
Brown 200 g (7 oz. 2 cups) sliced cep mushrooms in butter or oil and add them, with some chopped parsley, to 8 eggs, besting them all together. Cook the omelette. Garnish with a line of chopped ceps sautéed in butter or oil.
Any edible mushrooms can be used to flavour this omelette.
Fry 4 tablespoons finely diced bacon in a large pan over a low heat. Add 1 chopped onion, 3 diced boiled potatoes and 1 diced tomato. In a large bowl, beat 4 eggs with 100 g (4 oz. 1 cup) grated Gruyere cheese and some chopped chives. Pour this mixture over the bacon and vegetables in the pan. add a little salt and plenty of pepper and finish cooking the omelette.
Prepare 4 tablespoons finely shredded sorrel. Cook gently in butter or bind with cream, and beat it into 8 eggs. Cook the omelette. It may be served surrounded with a ribbon of cream sauce.
For 5 people, wash 2 soft carp roes and blanch them for 5 minutes in lightly salted boiling water. Chop the roes together with a piece of fresh tuna about the size of a hen’s egg so that they are well mixed. Put the chopped fish and roes into a pan with a small, finally chopped shallot and butter and sauté until all the butter is incorporated – this gives the essential flavour to the omelette.
Blend some fresh butter with parsley and chives, and spread it on to the dish in which the omelette will be served sprinkle with lemon juice and keep warm.
Beat 12 eggs, add the sautéed roes and tuna, and mix well together. Cook the omelette in the usual way, keeping the shape long rather than circular, and ensure that it is thick and creamy. As soon as it is ready, arrange it on the prepared dish and serve at once.
This dish should be reserved for special luncheons for those who appreciate good food. Serve it with a good wine, and the result will be superb.
Notes on preparations: the roes and the tuna should be sautéed over a very low heat, otherwise they will harden and it will be difficult to mix them properly with the eggs. The serving dish should be fairly deep, and preferably fish-shaped so that the sauce can be spooned up when serving. The dish should be heated enough to melt the maitre d’hotel butter on which the omelette is placed
Omelette a la dijonnaise
Beat 8 eggs with 2 tablespoons sugar, 2 or 3 finely crushed macaroons and 1 tablespoon double (heavy) cream. Make 2 flat omelettes. Put one of them a round ovenproof dish and spread it with 3 tablespoons very thick confectioner’s custard (see custard) mixed with 1 tablespoon ground almonds flavoured with Cassis. Place the second omelette on top and completely coat with egg whites whisked to stiff peaks. Sprinkle with icing (confectioner’s) sugar and glaze quickly in a very hot oven. Serve the omelette surrounded by a ribbon of blackcurrant jam.
Beat the eggs with some sugar and a pinch of salt, then cook the omelette in butter, keeping it very creamy. Dredge with sugar, sprinkle with heated rum and set light to it immediately before serving. The rum can be replaced by Armagnac, Calvados, cognac, whisky or a fruit-based spirit.
Omelett Reine Pedauque
Beat 8 eggs with 1 tablespoon caster (superfine) sugar, 1 tablespoons ground almonds. 1 tablespoon double (heavy) cream and a pinch of salt. Make 2 flat omelettes. Place one of the omelettes in a round ovenproof serving dish. Mix 6 tablespoons thick apple compote with 2 tablespoons double (heavy) cream and 1 tablespoon rum. Spread this mixture over the omelette, put the second omelette on top, sprinkle with icing (confectioner’s) sugar and glaze quickly in the oven or under the grill (broiler).
Omelette with fruit compote
Prepare a compose of peaches, plums, apples or apricots: cook the fruit in vanilla-flavoured syrup, drain, bind with jam made from the same type of fruit and flavour with liqueur. Beat 8 eggs with 1 tablespoons caster (superfine) sugar and a pinch of salt. Cook the omelette in butter. Just before folding. Fill with 4 tablespoons fruit compose. Fold the omelette, slip it on to a round plate and sprinkle with caster sugar. Glaze under the grill (broiler).
Mix together in a bowl 250 g (9 oz. Generous 1 cup) caster (superfine) sugar, 6 egg yolks and 1 teaspoon vanilla sugar of 1 tablespoon grated orange or lemon zest. Beat until the mixture turns white and thick. Whisk 8 egg whites to stiff peaks and fold carefully into the yolk mixture.
Butter a long ovenproof dish and sprinkle it with caster sugar. Pour in three-quarters of the omelette mixture and smooth it into a low mound with the blade of a knife. Put the rest of the mixture into a piping (pastry) bag with a plain round nozzle and pipe an interlaced decoration on top of the omelette oven at 200°C. (400 °F, gas 6) for about 20 minutes. Dredge with icing (confectioner’s) sugar and glaze under the grill (broiler).
The omelette can also be flavoured with chocolate, coffee or a liqueur.
Souffle omelette with wild strawberries
Clean, wash and drain some wild strawberries. Leave them to macerate in a few spoonfuls of Alsace framboise (raspberry-flavoured spirit) with a pinch of vanilla sugar. Whisk 4 egg whites to stiff peaks and separately beat the yolks with a little sugar. Mix the two carefully, then pour into a heavy frying pan containing very hot butter. When the eggs begin to set, add the strawberries, fold the omelette over and continue to cook over a low heat. Dredge very lightly with sugar and serve. A little fresh strawberry pure can be poured over the omelette.
OMELETTE SURPRISE A dessert based on the same ingredients as a baked Alaska - sponge cake soaked in syrup, ice cream and meringue – but with the addition of fruit. The base, which may be Genoa cake, Genoese sponge or madeleine cake mixture, is sprinkled with liqueur, covered with a hombe mixture, a fruit ice cream or a parfait mixture, mixed with preserved fruits or pralines violets. The whole is then masked with meringue and glazed in the oven. The desert is surrounded by poached fruits or cherries in brandy.
ONGLET. A french cut of beef consisting of two small muscles joined by an elastic membrne (the supporting muscles of the diaphragm). The butcher splits it open, trims it and removes all the skin and membrane. Onglet must be well hang. The meat is their tender and juicy. In the past it was not a popular cut, but it is now accepted that it makes a prime steak. Whether fried or grilled (broiled0, it should be eaten rare, otherwise if becomes tough.
Fried onglet with shallots
Make shallow criss-cross incisions n both sides of the meat. peel and chop 3-4 shallots. Heat about are aromatic, juicy and strongly flavoured. As their name indicates, they are pickled (in vinegar), they are also used in casseroles or they can be glazed and served as a vegetables dish.
§ PEARL (BUTTON) ONIONS. These small white onions are ideal for pickling, but they can also be added to stews and casseroles.
§ SILVERSKIN ONIONS. These are very small and, as their name suggests, they have silver skin and white flesh. They are used for pickling and are also sold cooked as cocktail onions, for use as a garnish, in hors d’oeuvre and adding to drinks.
§ SPRING ONIONS (SCALLONS OR GREEN ONIONS). These are also known as salad onions or bunching onions. These are picked either before the bubls. Form of with small white bulbs. Originally these where the beds, but now they are available all the year round. They may be cooked or served in salads. They are ideal of quick methods and are often cooked in stir fry dishes. Young spring onions are small and mild in flavour, but as they grow the flavour of the larger bulb becomes stronger
§ ORIENTAL ONION These are used extensively in China, Japan and Asia. They look like spring onions and grow in clusters. They thickened stem bases never form bulbs. Both the green and white parts can be eaten and they have a mild flavour, which is between that of a spring onion and leek. Their leaves can be broken off for use, leaving the reminder of the plant growing, which is why they are also sometimes called everlasting onions . similar varieties include welsh onions (scallions of green shallots), which originated in Japan not Wales, and Japanese bunching onions.
§ EGYPTINA ONIONS OR TREE ONIONS These vegetables look unusual as they have small bulbs towards the tops of their stems instead of flowers and larger bulbs at the roots. They taste similar to garlic.
§ Buying and using onions. When buying onions, look for bulbs which are quite firm and store them in a cool, dry, airy place. When preparing onions, the substance which makes the eye water (allyl sulphide) is released. To chop onions in comfort, put them into the freezer for 10 minutes or into the refrigerator for 1 hour before peeling, small pickling onions are easily peeled if they are boiled rapidly for 1 minute. Leaving the root end on also helps to prevent the volatile substance from being released. (It disappears during cooking). Once peeled, onions oxidize rapidly and can eventually become toxic; peeled onions should therefore be kept covered.
The onion is a major ingredient in cooking, being used especially as a flavouring in many casseroled dishes, in which it may be chopped, sliced or left whole and studded with cloves. Onions are also used for stuffings and to make sauces and braised dishes. In many dishes they are the main ingredient, from Alsace, pissaladiere, tourn, salt cod a la bretome, onion soup, beef mirron, tripe, soubise puree and all recipes a la Soubise, and in many dishese cooked a la lyomnaise from Asia come onion bbaji and from Britain, stuffed onions, which can be served as a hot main dish or a garnish for roast or braised meat. fried onion rings are used as a garnish for many dishes (sautéed or fried meat or fish) and finely chopped onion is an ingredient of vinaigrete, marinades and many cold garnishes. The onions is used with potatoes in many stews, and meat and vegetables soups, and it also goes well with cabbage and with many egg dishes. Small glazed onions are an essential ingredients for a range of meal and fish dishes (mattelote, blanquette, cihicken en babouile, coq au vin and dishes a la bouguignounne). Pickled onions are used as a condiment.
Peel some onions, slice them into rings 5 mm (1/4 in ) thick and separate the rings. Season with salt, dip in flour and fry in very hot oil. Drain them thoroughly on paper towels and sprinkle with fine salt. They can also be marinated in oil and lemon juice for 30 minutes, then dipped in batter and fried.
Finely chop 250 g (9 oz. 1 ½ cups) onions and dry them in butter without letting them get too brown. When they are almost ready, sprinkle with 25 g (1 oz. ¼ cup) plain (all-purpose) flour. Continue cooking for a minute or two, stirring the onions with wooden spoon, then pour on 2 litres (2 ½ pints, 9 cups) white stock and flavour with 2 tablespoons port or Madeira. Continue to cook for a further 30 minutes. Put some slices of bread, which have been dried in the oven, into a soup tureen and pour the soup over them.
Line a buttered 28 cm (11 in) flan tin (tart pan) with 400 g (14 oz) shortcrust pastry 9see short pastry) and cook it blind. Meanwhile prepare a soubise puree with 1 kg (2 ¼ lb). onions. Spread this in the flan case, sprinkle with fresh breadcrumbs, dot with butter and brown it in a hot oven for about 15 minutes.
Peel some large onions, taking care not to split the outer white layer, cut them horizontally at the stalk end, leaving about three-quarters of their total height. Blanch them in salted water for 10 minutes, then refresh and drain them. Scoop out the insides, leaving a thickness all round of 2 layers.
Chop the scooped-out onion finely and mix it with some finely chopped pork, veal, beef, lamb or mutton. Stuff the onions with this mixture, put them in a buttered flameproof casserole and moisten with a few tablespoons of slightly thickened brown veal stock. Start the cooking wit the lid on, on the hob (stovetop), then continue cooking in the oven, basting frequently to glaze the onions. A few minutes before they are cooked, sprinkle with breadcrumbs or Parmesan cheese, moisten with melted butter and brown the surface.
Onions can also be stuffed in the following ways.
§ A la catalone: rice cooked in meat stock with sweet (bell) peppers fried in olive oil and chopped hard-boiled (hard-cooked) eggs.
§ A l’italienne: rice cooked in meat with finely chopped onion, cooked lean ham and Parmesan cheese.
§ A la parisienne: finely chopped onion mixed with a duxelles of mushrooms and chopped cooked lean ham.
OPERA A garnish for noisettes of veal and sautéed tournmedos steaks (filets mignons). It consists of small bunches of asparagus tips and tartlet or croustades filed with chicken livers sautéed in Madeira. The sauce, which is pound over the meat., is made by deglazing the cooking juices with Madeira and demiglace.
This garnish is also used for shirred eggs, in this case the sauce consists of reduced seal stock enriched with butter.
The dessert crème renverse Opera is a caramel custard turned out of its mould and served decorated with Chantilly cream, crushed meringue and strawberries in kirsch Opera gelatin is an elaborate almonds sponge cake with a coffee and chocolate filing and icing.
ORCHE A garden plant whose green fleshy triangular leaves are used in soups and herbs stocks orache leaves may also be cooked like spinach and used either as a vegetable or as a garnish. They may also be used counteract the bitter taste of sorrel.
ORANGE The fruit of the sweet orange tree, cultivated widely in Mediterranean countries and other parts of the world. It is round with an orange or yellow skin and sweet juicy flesh, divided into segments which may or may not contain seeds. Originating in China and mentioned at the beginning of the Christian probably known to the ancient world Seville (bitter) oranges were brought to Europe by the Arabs into Spain and by the Crusaders into France Sweet oranges did not arrive in Europe until later, coming from Arab lands via Genoese or Portuguese merchants the latter also introduced them to America.
For centuries oranges were rarity: they were usually made into preserves, used for a table decoration offered as luxury gifts. Orange come mainly from Spain. Morocco, Turkey, Sicily, Israel, Italy, Cyprus Algeria, tuniska, Sougth Africa, Australia and the United States.
Sweet oranges The different varieties of sweet oranges are classified into four groups, available at different times of the year.
§ NAVEL ORANGES Characterized by a navel-like depression enclosing a small internal embryonic fruit. They are seedless and appear from the end of October. The Washington navels, with a firm rough skin, are juicy and slightly sour. Navellate is closely related to the Washington navel, but smaller and sweeter. The navelina is slightly paler and more oval in shape than the Washington navel; it flesh is tart, becoming sweeter later in the growing season.
§ BLONDES These winter orange have pale flesh. The Shamouti or Jalfa variety is quite large, has a thick skin, seeds and a crisp, well-flavoured, juicy pulp salusianas are seedless, have a grainy peel and are very juicy.
§ BLOOD ORANGES These small oranges have dark-red pulp and the skin may be veined with dark red. They are available from December to April. The mallese orange, with seeds, is sour, very juicy and has an exceptionally good flavour . Moro oranges, with a rough skin, are very juicy.
§ LATE ORANGES These pale-fleshed orange have few seeds and a thin rind. They include the Valencia variety. Valencia oranges, with or without seeds, have smooth firm skins and are sharp and juicy.
§ Bitter orange
SEVELLE ORANGE A bitter orange with rough peel, mostly used for making marmalade, jams and jellies Seville orange trees are cultivated mainly in Spain and on a local scale in the south of France, where crystallized (candied Seveille oranges (chinois confit) are a speciality of Nice. The flower of the Seville orange is used in the preparation of orange-flower water. The aromatic oil extracted from the thick peel of Seville oranges is used in distilling to flavour. Curacao, Cointreau and Grand Marnier. A traditional French dish is pot-roated duck in bitter-orange sauce (not to be confused with duck a l’orange).
§ Buying and using oranges. When buying oranges choose fruit that are shiny and heavy for their size. They are not easily damaged and will keep for some days at room temperature. If the zest or peel is to be used, the oranges should be scrubbed in warm water.
Oranges are widely used in desserts, patisserie and confectionery, for fruit salads mousses, dessert creams, frosted fruit, ices and sorbets, jams and marmalades, friters, souffles, filled sponges and biscuits (cookies). The candied peel is also used in numerous desserts and cakes, either as an ingredient or as a decoration oranges form the basis of an equally large range of drinks syrups, sodas, juice, orangeade, punches, liqueurs and fruit wines.
Sweet oranges are today used in recipes which , in former times used bitter oranges duck which nowadays is described as a la bigarade (with bitter oranges) is in fact cooked with sweet oranges. Some of the traditional dishes that use oranges as an ingredient are trout with orange butter (butter worked) with orange juice, grated nutmeg and paprikat), sole it l’orange (surrounded with peeled orange slices, butter sauce, crème fraiche and Curacao), young partride roasted it l’orange (garnished with peeled orange segments and grapes, the cooking juices being deglazed with orange juice); fried calf’s liver liver a l’orange (garnished with orange slices, the pan being deglazed with orange juice); omelette a l’orange (a savoury omelette flavoured with tomato sauce and grated orange zest); veal knuckle a l’orange (braised with a julienne of orange zest, with orange juice added to the cooking liquid); sheep’s tongues a l’orange (cooked in water, covered with a sauce made from vinegar roux, thickened with gooseberry jelly and garnished with orange segments); and salad of chicory (endive), beetroot (beets) and peeled, orange segments, dressed with a tarragon-flavoured vinaigrette.
Candied orange peel
Choose thick-skinned oranges. Peel them, scrape off all the white pitch from the peel and cut the peel into strips. For each orange, put 250 ml (8 fl oz. 1 cup) water, 125 g (4 ½ oz. Scant 2/3 cup) sugar and 6 tablespoons grenadine syrup is reduced by three-quarters. Leave the peel in the syrup until it is quite cold, then drain it. Sprinkle a baking sheet thickly with icing (confectioner’s) sugar, roll the pieces of peel in the sugar and dry off under the grill (broiler).
Choose some unblemished thick-skinned oranges. Cut off the top of each orange at the stalk end. Using a sharp-edged spoon, scrape out all the pulp, taking care not to pierce the skin. Cut a small hole at the top of the orange caps, where the stalk was attached. Put the orange sheels and the caps into the freezer. Make an orange sorbet with pulp. When it begins to set, put into the orange shells, smoothing the top into a dome shape. Replace the caps and insert along lozenge-shaped piece of candied angelica into the hole, to resemble a leaf. Put back in the freezer until ready to serve.
Orange and apple jelly
Weigh some ripe (but not overripe) apples and wash and slice them (without peeling or coring). Put them into a pan and add 1.5 litres (23/4 pints, 6 ½ cups) water per 1 kg (2 ¼ lb) apples. Bring to the boil a 1 cook until the apples are quite soft. Pour them into a jelly-bag or a piece of muslim (cheesecloth0 stretched over a basin and let the juice drain, without pressing the apples. Measure the juice obtained. Allow 10 large oranges per 1 litre (1 ¾ pints, 4 1/3 cups) apple juice; squeeze them and strain the juice. Mix the two juices and add 900 g (2 lb. 4 cups) sugar and the coarsely grated zest of 4 oranges per 1 litre (1 ¾ pints, 4 ½ cups) juice. Bring the pan to the boil and cook until the temperature of the jelly (gelatine) 104°C (219°F). Remove the peel and pot in the usual way.
Wash 16 juicy oranges and 3 lemons. Remove the peel without pitch from 2 lemons and 4 oranges and chop it. Remove the white pit from this fruit. Cut all the fruit in half and remove the central white string. Take out the seeds, tie these in a piece of muslim (cheesecloth) and put them into a bowl with 250 ml (8 f oz. 1 cup) water. Slice the halved fruit finely (the peel can be left on or removed) and put them into a large bowl with the chopped peel and 4 litres (7 pints, 4 quarts) water. Leave them to soak 24 hours, turning the fruit the fruit two or three times.
Pour the contents of the bowl into a preserving pan and add the bag containing the seeds. Cover the pan and bring it to the boil. Remove the lid and simmer gently for 2 hours. Add 4 kg (9 lb.) granulated or loaf sugar, bring the pan back to the boil, then reduce the heat and simmer, stirring constantly. Skim the pan and continue to cook for 30 minutes after bringing back to the boil. Pot in the usual way.
Make cake 24 cm (9 ½ in) in diameter with 4 eggs, 125 g (4 ½ oz. 2/3 cup) caster (superfine) sugar and 125 g (4 ½ oz. 1 cup) plain (all-purpose) flour. Bake and cool on a wire rack.
Make a syrup with 300 ml ( ½ pint. 1 ¼ cups) water and 200 g (7 oz. 1 cup) sugar. Wash 2 oranges. Cut in two and slice finely into even slices. Cook the orange slices in the syrup, drain and put them to one side. Remove the zest of 2 oranges, blanch it twice and cook for 10 minutes in the syrup.
Divide the remaining syrup into 3 amounts. Dilute one amount with 3 ½ tablespoons orange liqueur to moisten the sponge cake. Dilute the second amount with a little orange juice and add 100 g (4 oz. ½ cup) orange jelly to make the sauce accompanying the dessert, which is then strained throughout a fine chinois. Dilute the third amount with 100 g (4 oz, 1/3 cup) orange jelly and a little orange juice, adding 1 leaf of gelatine, melted for the final glazing.
Make a custard with 500 ml (17 fl oz. 2 ¼ cups) milk, flavoured with ½ vanilla pod (bean), 4 egg yolks, 100 g ( 4 oz. ½ cup) caster sugar and 60 g (2 ¼ oz. 1/3 cup) plain (all-purpose) flour. Add 2 sheets of dissolved leaf gelatine an 1 cool it quickly. Whisk until smooth. Add 3 ½ tablespoons orange liquer, 150 g (5 oz. 1 cup) candied orange zest. Diced very small, and then gently fold in 300 ml (1/2 pint. 1/ ¼ cups double (heavy) cream, lightly whipped. Cut the sponge cake horizontally into 3 layers. Line the sides of a ring mould 24 cm (9 ¼ in ) in diameter, placed on iced (frosted) cardboard, wit the half slices of candied orange, slightly over lapping. Place a layer of sponge cake at the bottom of the ring. Soak it with syrup and cover with half the cream. Put the second layer of sponge cake on top, soak it again and cover with the remaining cream/ put the last layer of sponge cake on top, with the golden side facing upward. Press gently and soak with the rest of the syrup. Put in the refrigerator for a few hours. Glaze with the jelly and put it back in the refrigerator to set. Carefully remove from the ring. Pour a fine ribbon of sauce around and decorate with candied orange zest and sprigs of mint.
Select 10 very large juicy orange and remove the peel and the pith. Put the pulp through a juice extractor to obtain the maximum amount of juice. Measure the juice and add 300 g (11 oz. 1 1/3 cups) sugar per 1 litre (1 ¾ pints. 4 1/3 cups) (more if the juice is very sour). Pour the juice into an ice-cream maker and leave it to set.
Select some ripe oranges and peel a few of them very thinly, put the peel to one side, as it will be used to flavour the syrup. Peel the rest of the oranges. Put the pulp through a vegetable milk, then strain it through a fine sieve or damp muslim (cheesecloth). Measure the juice. Add 800 g (1 ¾ lb. 3 ½ cups) sugar to each 500 ml (17 fl. oz. 2 cups) juice, put into a preserving pan and bring slowly to the boil. While the syrup is heating, line a large conical strainer with muslim and put in the serve orange peel. Pour the syrup over the peel as soon as it comes to the boil. Let it get completely cold before bottling and sealing.
Make a Genoese sponge with 150 g (5 oz. 2/3 cup) caster (superfine) sugar 6 eggs, 150 g (5 oz. 1 ¼ cups) plain (all-purpose) flour. 50 g (2 oz. ¼ cup) butter and pinch of salt. Leave it to cool completely. Make 250 ml (8 f. oz. 1 cup) Curacao-flavoured confectioner’s custard and mix in 250 ml (8 fl. oz. 1 cup) (heavy) cream. Whisked with a 1 teaspoon vanilla sugar and 25 g (1 oz. 2 tablespoons) caster sugar. Put this cream into the refrigerator. Slice the sponge into 3 equal layers. Soak each layer with 2 tablespoons curacao-flavoured syrup. Spread the cream over 2 of the layers and build up the cake again. Ice (frost) the top and sides with Curacao-flavoured fondant. Decorate the cake with pieces of candied orange peel and angelica.
Savoury orange and cucumber salad
Remove all the peel and pith from some oranges and slice them into rounds about 5 mm (1/4 in) thick. Remove the seeds. Peel and finely slice some cucumber, sprinkle the slices with salt and leave them to drain. Rinse the slices in cold water and dry them. Arrange the slices of orange and cucumber alternately in a round glass dish. Serve with a well-seasoned vinaigrette as an entrée.
Alternatively, the oranges may be cut into small cubes and mixed with twice their volume of grated carrot. Season the salad with vinaigrette made with olive oil and respberry vinegar and chill until ready to serve.
Bitter Oranges – Savoury Recipes
Bitter orange sauce
Peel the rind (zest) of 1 Seville orange in strips running from top to bottom, ensuring that it is very thin: any pith left on it would make it bitter. Cut each strip into small pieces and place in a little boiling water. Allow to boil for a few minutes, then drain and put in a pan with some espagnole sauce, a little game extract, a pinch of coarsely ground pepper and the juice of ½ Seville orange. Boil for a few moments, then add a little good-quality butter.
Brown a bitter orange sauce for roast duck
Cut the rind of 1 Seville orange (or 1 sweet orange ) and ½ lemon into thin strips; blanch, cool and drain. Heat 20 g (3/4 tablespoons) granulated sugar and 1 tablespoon good wine vinegar in a sauceman until it forms a pale caramel. Add 200 ml (7 fl oz. ¾ cup) brown veal stock (or well reduced bouillon) and boil vigorously for 5 minutes. Add the juice of the orange and a dash of lemon juice. Strain and add the blanched rind. The sauce can be flavoured with a small amount of curacao added just before serving.
Duck in bitter orange sauce
Cut the rind of 1 Seville orange (or 1 sweet orange) and ½ lemon into thin strips; blanch, cool and drain. Fry the duck in butter for about 45 minutes, until the flesh is just pink. Drain, untruss and arrange on a serving dish. Deglaze the cooking stock with 100 ml (4 fl. oz. 7 tablespoons) white wine. Add 300 ml ( ½ pint, 1 ¼ cups veal stock or a fairly light demi-glace sauce; otherwise use well reduced chicken stock. Prepare some vinegar caramel, using 2 sugar lumps dissolved in 2 tablespoons vinegar and add to the sauce. Boil for a few moments. Add the juice of the orange and the lemon half, reduce, strain and add the orange and lemon rind. The duck can be garnished with peeled Saville orange segments, if like.
Filets of wild duck in bitter orange sauce
Take the breasts fillets from 2 wild ducks and place in an earthenware dish, with salt, coarsely ground pepper, parsley, thyme, I bay leaf, chopped shallots, lemon juice and 3 tablespoons good oil. Marinate the duck in the mixture for 45 minutes, turning frequently. Lay the fillets on a spit rack, them skewer them loosely and sprinkle with the marinade. Cook until they are firm to the touch. Remove the skewers and place the duck in a sauté dish containing a melted knob of butter and the juice of ½ lemon. Serve with bitter orange sauce.
White bitter orange sauce for roast duck
Deglaze the dish in which the duck has been cooked with 175 ml (6 fl. oz. ¾ cup) dry white wine. Cut the rind of 1 Seville orange (or 1 sweet orange) and ½ lemon into thin strips; blanch, cool and drain. When the sauce has almost completely reduced, add 150 ml (1/4 pint, 2/3 cup) white consomme or stock and boil for 5 minutes. Thicken with 1 teaspoon cornflour (cornstarch) or arrow-root mixed with 2 tablespoons cold water. Add the juice of the orange and a dash of lemon juice. Strain, add the rind and adjust the seasoning.
Bitter orange-Sweet Recipes
Wash and weigh 16 bitter oranges and 2 lemons. Peel them, including the pith, and separate them into segments. Scrape off the pitch from half the peel and cut this peel into very fine strips. Fut the fruit and the sliced peel into a pan and add an equal weigh of water. Leave to soak for 24 hours. Pour into a preserving pan and cook until the fruit can easily crushed; remove the pan from the heat. Weigh a pan large enough to contain the cooked fruit, pour in the fruit and weigh again to obtain the weight of the fruit. Leave to soak for another 24 hours. Pour the fruit back into the preserving pan, add an equal weigh of sugar, bring to the boil and cook for 5-6 minutes. Pot in the usual way.
Seville orange jelly dessert
Peel the rind from 2 sound Seville oranges as thinly as possible, then squeeze the juice of 5 lemons on to the zest and strain the juice through a sieve. Mix with 400 g (14 oz. 1 ¾ cups) granulated sugar and 40 g (1 ½ oz) clarified gelatine. Finish the jelly and mould in the usual manner. Set over ice.
ORANGEADE A refreshing drink made from orange juice and sugar, diluted with plain or soda water. Orangeade is best served well chilled, with ice; a little lemon juice may be added or a trace of Curacao or rum.
ORANGEAT A French petit four shaped like a flat disc, made from almond paste mixed with chopped candied orange peel, iced (frosted) with white fondant and decorated with orange peel.
ORANGE-BLOSSOM FLOWER WATER The fragrant flowers of the bitter (Seville) orange are macerated and distilled to produce orange-flower water. This is manufactured on a industrial seale and is widely used as a flavouring in pastries, puddings, cakes syrups and confectionery. In Morocco it is used to flavour salads and some tajines. Orange blossoms is also used to make orange flower sugar. Which is used to flavour pastries, cakes and custards. The essential oil of orange blossom, called neroli oil, is used in perfumery and for flavouring foods.
Add 250 g (9 oz) orange blossom, ½ teaspoon cinammon stick and clove to 1 litre pints, 4 1/3 cups) 22% alochol (44° proof). Leave for 1 month, then filter. Prepare a syrup with 500 g (18 oz. 2 ¼ cups) sugar and 500 ml (17 fl. oz, 2 cups) water . boil, cool, then add the flavoured alcohol. Filter once more and pour into sterilized bottles. Store in a cool dark place.
Dry some orange blossom, either in a closed container or in an oven, so as to obtain 250 g (9 oz) dry petals. Add 500 g (18 oz. 2 ¼ cups)caster (superfine) sugar to these petals and pound well in a mortar, then rub through a ver fine sieve. Store in sealed airtight jars in a dry, dark place.
OREGANO Also known as wild marjoram, this is a herb with a pungent flavour. It grows mainly in Italy, where it is an important cooking ingredient, and also in Britain and parts of America, where its flavour is less pungent. It is popular in Mediterranean dishes such as pasta and pizza success and tomato dishes. In its dried from, in which it is often solid, it has a much stronger flavour.
OREILLER DE LA BELLE AURORE A large, square, raised pie dedicated to Brillat-Savarin’s mother, Claudine-Auroroe Recamier. It is contains two different fillings 9one of veal and pork, the other of chicken livers, young partridges, mushrooms and truffles), to which are added marinated veal fillets, slices, slices of breast from young red partridge an duck a saddle of hare, white chicken meat and blanched calves’ sweetbreads.
OREILLETTES Pastry fritters traditionally made the Languedoc region of France at carnival time. They are made from sweetened dough cut into long rectangles with a slit in the centre (sometimes one end is passed through this hole to form a sort of knot) and fried in oil. The oreillettes of Montpellier, flavoured with rum and orange or lemon zest, are famous.
Oreillettes de Montpellier
Pour 1 kg (2 ¼ lb. 9 cups) plain (al-purpose) flour into a heap and make a well in the centre. Pour 300 g (11 oz. 1 2/3 cups) melted butter into the well and work it in, gradually drawing the flour to the centre; continue to work in 5 eggs. 2 tablespoons caster (superfine) sugar, a few tablespoons of rum, a small glass of milk and the finely grated peel from 2 oranges. Knead well to obtain a smooth dough. Continue to work the dough until it becomes elastic, then form it into a ball and leave it to rest for 2 hours. Roll out the dough very thinly and cut it into rectangles 5 x 8 cm (2 x 31/4 in). Make 2 incisions in the centre of each rectangle. Fry the oreillettes in very hot oil at 175°C (345°F). they will puff up immediately and rapidly become golden. Drain them on paper towels. Sprinkle with icing (confectioner’s) sugar and arrange them in a basket lined with a napkin.
ORAGNIC FARMING The term covers farming methods for cultivating land and growing crops without the use of artificial fertilizers or pesticides and for rearing animals and birds in a natural and humane way. The production of organic food varies with the different types of food and from country to country.
ORGANOLEPTIC Describing the qualities that determine the palatability or otherwise of a food. The organoleptic qualities of a food or drink can be defined by its flavour, smell appearance, texture and colour.
ORGEAT A syrup make from sugar and milk of almonds, flavoured with orange flower water, this is then diluted with water to make a refreshing drink. In former times it was made from barley (orge in French) hence its name.
ORGY A feast at which eating and drinking is indulged in to excess and which ends in debauchey. This modern sense of the word has lost its original religious overtones. To the ancient Greeks, and later the Romans, orgies were feasts held in honour of Dionysius, then of Bacchus, at which their followers, exalted by wine, dancing and music, became as if possessed by the god and lost all control of themselves.
ORIENTALE, A L’ The name given to dishes inspired by the cooking of Turkey and the Balkans and containing numerous ingredients and spices from the Mediterranean region, such as aubergines (eggplants), tomatoes, rice, saffron, onions and (bell) peppets. The garnish a l’orientale for both large and small cuts of meat consists of small tomatoes stuffed with rice pilaf (sometimes flavoured with saffron), together with okra and peppers braised in butter; the sauce is a tomato-flavoured demi-glace.
Red mullet a l’orientale
Clean some very small red mullet, season with salt and pepepr, dip them in flour and fry quickly in oil. Arrange them in a flameproof dish. Cover with a fondue of tomato lightly flavoured with saffron, fennel, thyme, a crumbled bay leaf, a few coriander seeds, chopped garlic and parsley. Bring to the boil, cover, then finish cooking in a preheated oven at 220°C (425°F, gas &), for 6-8 minutes. Leave the fish to get cold in their cooking sauce. Garnish with thin slices of peeled lemon and sprinkle with chopped parsley; serve cold.
Salad a l’orientale
Cook some long-grain rice in salted water to which saffron has been added , keeping it fairly firm; drain thoroughly. Mix the rice with some peeled and finely chopped onion and season with vinaigrette well spiced with paprika. Pile the rice in a dome in a salad bowl. Turn some red and green (bel) peppers under a hot grill (broiler), then skin them, cut them open, take out the seeds and cut the flesh into strips. Peel, seed and chop some tomatoes. Garnish the rice with the peppers, tomatoes and some stoned (pitted) black (ripe) olives.
Sauce a Porientale
Make some tomato fondue and add saffron and a salpicon of red and green (bell) peppers. Make some very thick mayonnaise. Add the chilled tomato fondue to the mayonnaise and keep cold until ready to serve.
ORLEANAISE, A L’ Describing large cuts of meat garnish with braised endive (chicory) and maitre d’hotel potatoes.
ORLEANS The name given to tartles of eggs (poachd, soft-boiled or sur le plat) which are garnished with either a salpicon of home marrow and truffle bound with Madeira sauce or with finely diced white chicken meat in tomato sauce. It also describes rolled sole fillets en paupiette, garnished with a salpicon of shrimps and mushrooms, covered with white wine sauce and garnished with a slice of truffle.
ORLOFF The name given to a traditional recipe for cooking loin of veal the meat is braised, sliced, stuffed with a puree of mushrooms and onions and possibly slices of truffle, then reshaped, covered with Maintenon sauce, sprinkled with Parmesan cheese and glazed in the oven. The chef who perfected this dish was undoubtedly UrbainDubois, who was in Prince Orloff’s service for over 20 years.
Orloff garnish for large cuts of meat consists of braised celery and filled with a mouse made from celery puree), chateau potatoes and braised lettuce.
Peel and thinly slice 500 g (18 oz) onions, 1 large carrot and 800 g ( 1 ¾ lb) button mushrooms. Melt 50 g (2 oz. ¼ cup) butter in a casserole and brown 150 g (5 oz.) bacon rinds, then a boned loin of veal weighing about 1.8 g (4 lb.). add the sliced carrot, 1 large tablespoon sliced onions, a bouquet garni, salt and pepper. Add just enough water to cover the meat, put the lid on a cook over a low heat for 1 hour 20 minutes.
Salmon fillets Orly with tomato sauce
Trim 14 salmon fillets. Put them into a dish with some salt, coarsely ground pepper, a little grated nutmeg, 2 finely sliced shallots, some sprigs of parsley, the juice of 2 lemons, 100 ml (4 fl oz. 7 tablespoons) olive, a little thyme and a bay. Turn the fillets several times in this marinade and drain off the water which they produce. An hour before the meal, drain the fillets on paper towels, sprinkle with flour and turn them in this until they are quite dry. Pat them back into shape with the blade of a knife and dip them into 4 beaten eggs before frying them. When cooked, arrange them in a circle on a plate and serve a light tomato sauce separately.
ORMER (ABALONE) A large single-shell mollusc found off the Pacific coasts of Asia and Mexico, in the Mediterranean and of the European Atlantic coast. All the muscle is edible and has a chewy texture but unique flavour. To cook, remove from the shell, trim and beat well to tenderize, then slice thinly and fry very briefly. It can also be eaten raw. In Japan it is usually cooked by sake-steaming. Dried or canned abalone is used widely in Asia and, although cheaper than fresh, is still expensive. It is considered a delicacy in Chin, it is popular in California, and in New Zealand abalone is a Maori specifically called puva pava, which is sliced and barbecued on skewers.
Ormeaux a la cancalaise
Place 8 large or 12 medium ormers, still alive, at the bottom of the refrigerator for 48 hours in order to weaken them. Remove them from their shells while still cold. Remove the beards and put them to one side. Scrape the ormers under cold running water to remove all traces of black. Put them on a damp cloth in the refrigerator for 24 hours. Before cooking them, massage gently to tenderize.
Carefully wash and dry the beards, then brown them in 100 g (4 oz. ½ cup) butter. Add 1 peeled and chopped shallot. 1 sliced carrot, 3 finely sliced mushrooms. 3 ¼ tablespoons. Coteaux-du-Layon, 1 roasted garlic clove, the stems of ½ bunch of parsley and 2 tablespoons chopped, dried nori. Add 100 ml (4 fl oz. 7 tablespoons) chicken stock. Cover and simmer gently for 1 hour, then strain. (This ormer stock is highly falvoured).
Blanch 4 unblemished leaves of new cabbage in boiling salted water. Drain and put t one side. Heat 3 ½ tablespoons oil in a saucepan and briskly fry the leaves of 20 small sprigs of parsley. Remove from the oil, drain on paper towels and put to one side. Reheat the ormer stock and thicken with 50 g (2 oz. ¼ cup) butter. Brown the ormers for 2 minutes on each side. Allow to rest for 15 minutes to enable the meat to relax. Deglaze the pan with the stock and 4 teaspoons cider vinegar. Strain through a fine sieve. Reheat the cabbage leaves in a knob of butter and a little water.
Place a perfect warm shell on each plate with a cabbage leaf to one side. Finely shared 2 or 3 ormers and arrange on the cabbage leaf, with some on the shell. Sprinkle with finely chopped parsley, pour some ormer stock on top and garnish with a few leaves of fried parsley.
ORTOLAN The French name for a small migratory bird-a species of bunting – considered since early times to be the finest and most delicate of birds to eat. In Britain it is extinct and in France it is now officially protected, as it is becoming so rare in that country. However, the law is not strictly observed in south-western France, especially in the Landes, where they continue to be captured alive and fattened up for private consumption. The bird’s diet (millet, buds, berries, grapes and small insects) gives it is flesh flavour and delicacy. Weighing only 30 g (1 ¼ oz). When cough, it can quadruple its weigh in a month.
Ortolans are usually in their own fat; the latter drips on the pieces of bread, which some recommend should be spread with Roquefort cheese.
ORVIETO A DOC predominantly dry, delicate white wine produced in Italy’s Umbria region from Trebiano blended with Verdello, Grechetto, Drupeggio and Malvasia Toscano grapes with a minimum alcohol level of 11.5%.
OSSAU-IRATY A French ewe’s-milk cheese protected by an appleation d’origine protégé but often sold under the name Fromage de Brebis des Pyrenees’. With a fat content of a least sold under the name Fromage de Brebis des Pyrenees’. With a fat content of a least 50%, the cheese has a creamy yellow, highly pressed curd, a smooth orange-yellow to grewy rind, and pronounced flavour. It is made in the shape of a flat disc with straight or slightly convex sides, in two sizes: 24.5-28 cm (9 ½ -11 in ) in diameter, 12-14 cm (4 ¼ - 5 ½ in) deep, weighing 4-7 kg (9-15 lb.); and 20 cm (7 ¾ in) in diameter, 10-12 cm (4- 4 ¾ in) deep, weighing 2-3 kg (4 ½ - 6 ½ lb). It can be eaten at the end of a meal, on canapes, as a snack or as part of a mixed salad.
OSSO BUCCO An Italian dish, originally from Milan, whose name means literally ‘borne with a hole” . it consists of a stew of pieces of veal shin braised in white wine with onion and tomato. It is generally served with pasta or rice. The variation called alla gremolata is prepared with the addition of a mixture chopped garlic, orange and lemon peel and grated nutmeg.
Osso bucco a la milanaise
Season 8 veal shins, weighing about 1.6 kg (3 ½ lb.), with salt and pepper, sprinkle with flour, then brown them in olive oil in a large flameproof casserole. Chop enough onions to give 5 level tablespoons; add these to the casserole and cook until golden. Moisten with 200 ml (7 fl oz. ¾ cup) white wine, reduce this, then add 4 large tomatoes, skinned, seeded and coarsely chopped. Pour in 250 ml (8 fl. oz. 1 cup) stock. Finally add 1 large crushed garlic clove and a bouquet garni. Cover the casserole and cook in a preheated oven at 200°C (400°F, gas 6 ) for 1 ½ hours. Arrange the pieces of knuckle in a deep dish and cover them with the reduced cooking liquid. Squeeze on a little lemon juice and sprinkle with chopped parsley.
OSTRICH A large African bird, whose fleshy and eggs have long been eaten. It s brain was considered to be delicacy at the time of Nero. Ostrich is now farmed outside of Africa for its flesh, which is lean and tender. Its meat, the flavour of which is a mixture between beef and game, should be prepared and cooked in the same way as tender beef.
OUASSOU West Indian cryafish which lives in fresh water (ouasson in Creole means king of the springs). It is served fried and also in a stew with many vegetables.
OUBLIE A small flat or cornet-shaped water, widely enjoyed in France in the Middle Ages, but whose origins go even further back in time. Oublies, which were perhaps the first cakes in the history of cooking, are the ancestors of waffles. They were usually made from a rather thick waffle batter and were cooked in flat, round, finely patterned iron moulds. Some authorities consider that the name comes from the Greek obelios, meaning a cake cooked, others that it comes from the Latin oblata (offering), which also means an unconsecrated host.
In the Middle Ages oublies were made by the oubloyeurs (or oublieux), whose guild was incorporated in 1270. They made a sold their waters in the open street, setting up stalls at fairs and in the open space in front of churches on feast days. It was said that the most celebrated oublies where those from Lyon, where apparently they were rolled into cornets after being cooked. The oubloyeurs would put them one inside the other and sell them in fives called a main d’oublies 9a hand of oublies). Often they would play dice for them their customer or draw lots for them on a ‘Wheel of fortune’, which was in fact the cover of the large apannier – or coffin - in which they carried their wares. By the 15th century most of the Parisian pastry cooks were establish in the Rue des Oubloyeurs in the Cite, by night an day the apprentices would set out laden with their panniers full of neules (round flat cakes ). Ecbaudes ( a sort of brioche), oublies and other small cakes, crying Voila le plaisr, mesdames! (Here’s pleasure, ladies ), which led t outblies being given the popular name of plaisirs. The last of these peddlars disappeared after World War I.
Oublies a la parisienne
Put 250 g (9 oz. 2 ¼ cups) sifted plain (all-pupose) flour, 150 (5 oz, 2/3 cup) sugar, 2 eggs and a little orange-flower water or lemon juice into a bowl. Work together until everything is well mixed, then gradually add 575 ml (19 fl. oz. 2 1/3 cups) milk, 65 g (2 ½ oz. 5 tablespoons) melted butter and grated zest of a lemon. Heat an oublie or waffle iron and grease it evenly; pour in a 1 tablspoon batter and cook over a high, turning the iron over halfway through. Peel the wafter off the iron and either roll it into a cornet round a wooden cone or leave it flat.
QUIDAD Traditional dish of Maghreto and , in particular, Moroccan cooking. Quidad consists of hand semolina flour, like couscous, and fish, such as scorepion fish (trascasse) and gilt--head bream (daurade).
OUNANNICHE Name of American Indian origin used in Quebec for describe the freshwater variety of the Atlantic Salmon . Smaller than salmon, it lives only in Lake Saint Jean and its Neighboriung rivers, it is preepared in the same ways as salmon or trout.
OURTETO A mixture of chopped spinach, sorrel, celery and leeks and flavoured with crushed garlic. It is eaten in Provence, in the south of France . on slices of bread cut from a large round white loaf. Moistened with olive oil.
OUZO A spirit flavoured with aniseed, made in Greece and many of the Greek islands, including Cyprus. Like pastis it terms cloudy when water added, and it should always be served with iced water, though it should not be kept in the refrigerator for any length of time.
OVEN An enclosed cooking apparatus, derived from the bread oven, whose origins are lost in the mists of time. In domestic kitchens the oven is usually a source of dry heat, used for dry cooking methods, such as baking and roasting. There are many types of oven, foelled by gas or electricity. Solid fuel, wood and oil fitted ovens are also available. Some ovens also have additional features, such as a rotisserie, fan aor grill (broiler) elements.
OVERLAP To arrange food so that each piece is partially covered by the next to achieve a decorative effects.
OXTAIL. A cut of meat used to make many delicious dishes, notably oxtail soup and Flemish backhepot (ee botchpotch). It can also be braised and served with a flamande or nivermaise garnish, or it can be boiled, coated with breadcrumbs and grilled (broiled0 a la Sainte-menebould.
Oxtail sour is a classic English soup which, according o some authorities, could have been introduced into Britain by refugees from the French Revolution. It is a clear soup made from an oxtail an traditionally it is flavoured with basil, marijoaram, savory and thyme, although these are often replaced by the classic braising vegetables carrots, leeks and onions. Oxtail soup can be garnished with small vegetables balls or a brunoise, as well as with meat from the oxtail; it is flavoured with Madeira, brandy or sherry
Braised oxtail with horseradish croutes
Cut 2 oxtails into chunks and trim of excess fat. Dust the pieces very lightly with a little well-seasoned flour, then brown them allover in a little butter, lard or oil in a large frying pan. remove and set aside. Cook 2 large sliced onions. 2 diced celery sticks, 2 diced carrots. 2 bay leaves, 1 chopped garlic clove and 2 diced rindless bacon rashers (slices) in the pan, adding a little extra butter, lard or oil if necessary. When the vegetables are softened slightly remove the pan from the heat.
Layer the oxtail and vegetables mixture in a large deep casserole. Return the frying pan to the heat and deglaze it with a little brandy, stirring to remove all the cooking residue form the pan. add a little water and bring to the boil, stirring. Pour this over the ingredients in the casserole. Add a bottle of red wine and plenty of salt and pepper. Cover the casserole and cook in a preheated oven at 160°C (325°F, gas 3) for about 3 hours or until the oxtail is completely tender.
Towards the ends of the cooking time, beat a little creamed horseradish into softened butter. Cut slices off a beguette and spread them with the horseradish butter. Place on a baking sheet and cook in the oven until crisp and golden.
Taste the casserole for seasoning before serving. Stir in plenty of chopped fresh parsley and serve with the horseradish croutes.
Grilled oxtail Sainte-Menehould
Cut an oxtail into sections 6-7 cm (2 ½-3 in) long and cook them in stock prepared as for a post-au-feu, stop cooking before the meat begins to come away from the bones. Drain the pieces, bone them without breaking them up, and leave them to cool, under a weight, in the stock (from which the fat has been skimmed). Drain and dry the pieces, spread them with mustard, brown them quickly in clarified butter, then roll them in fine fresh breadcrumbs. Grill (broil) gently and serve with any of the following sauces - diable, piquante, mustard, pepper, bordelaise or Robert – accompanied by mashed potatoes.
Put 1.5 kg (3 ¼ lb) oxtail, cut into small chunks, into a casserole, on a bed of sliced carrots, leeks and onions. Sweat in the oven for 25 minutes. Cover with 2.5 litres (4 ¼ pints, 11 cups) stocks made by cooking 1.5 g 3 ¼ lb.) gelatinous bones for 7-8 hours in 3.25 litres (5 ½ pints, 14 cups) water. Seasoned simmer gently, so that the boiling is imperceptible, for 3 ½ - 4 hours. Strain the soup and skim off surplus fat. Clarify by boiling it of 1 hour with 500 g (18 g oz. 2 ¼ cups) chopped lean beef and the white part of 2 leeks. Finely sliced, first whisking both these ingredients with a raw white of egg. Strain the stock. Garnish with pieces of oxtail and 300 ml (1/2 pint, 1 ¼ cups) coarse brunoise of carrots, turnips and celery, sweated in butter and dropped into the stock. Add 1 tablespoon sherry.
OYONNADE A French goose stew with wine, thickened with the liver and blood of the bird and mixed with spints. It used to be a traditional dish for All Saints’ Day in the Bourbountais region and was served with swedes (rutabaga).
OYSTER A saltwater biyalve mollusc, of which there are many edible varieties.
The oyster has been known to humans from the earliest times. The Celts, the Greeks (who reared oysters in beds) and the Romans all are oysters in large quantities. Nowadays oysters are farmed, thus ensuring that they are not overfished and are free from pollution.
In the cultivation of oysters, seed oysters are affixed to tiles and neared in areas some way out to sea. When they have reached a certain size, they are transferred to the fattening beds, which are always situated at the mouth of a river, the mixture of fresh and sea water being essential to induce overgrowth of the liver, of which the fattening consists. The growing period lasts from three to four years and requires constant supervision. As the oyster grows, it needs more space and therefore a larger area is required for the bed. It must be protected from pollution and from the natural enemies – skate, winkles crabs, starfish, octopus and sea birds.
The most important varieties are the European oyster, which is found off the coast of Essex and Kent in Britain, on the Atlantic coasts of France, the coasts of Belgium and the Northerlands, and the southern coast of Ireland, the Portuguese oyster which is larger than the European oyster and is a native of Portugal, Spain and Morocco, the American oyster, which is similar in size to the Portuguese oyster and is found along the Atlantic seabound of Canada and the United States. The most famous American oysters are the Cape, long island and Chesapeake Bay oysters. Amongst the Asian oysters, the largest is the giant Pacific oyster, which, because of its size, is generally cooked, dried or used for oyster sauce. Oysters are also found in Australia and New Zealand.
For generations oysters were supported to be eaten only during the months containing the letter (from September to April). However, with modern methods of rearing and transport they can now safely be eaten at any time of the year. Oysters must always be bought live, with the shells closed or closing when tapped, and they should feel quite heavy, as they should be full of water. They are not opened until the lists minute. To test whether an opened oyster is alive, prick the cilia, which should instantly retract.
Nowadays, as oysters have become more expensive. They are nearly always eaten live and raw, plainly dressed with lemon and accompanied by bread and butter or with a vinegar dressing containing shallot and pepper. However, they can also be cooked and used in hot and cold dishes. Oyster can be poached, then chilled and served with various sauces, sometimes in barquettes, they can be browned in the oven in their shells, or they can be served with artichoke hearts or in croustades. Browning must always be done very rapidly and the preliminary poaching is often unnecessary. Oyster can also be cooked on skewers, made into fritters, croquettes, soups and consommés, and used as a garnish in fish recipes English and American cookery n particular made good use of oysters – in soup, as a sauce, or as Angels on Horseback. Among the French regional specialities is one from Arcachon, wehre local oysters are served with grilled (broiled) chipolata sausages.
Angles on horseback
Take some oysters out of their shells. Sprinkle them with pepper and wrap each one in thin slice of bacon. Thread them on skewers and grill(broil) for 2 minutes. Arrange on pieces of hot toast.
Oysters a la Boston
Open 12 oysters; carefully take out the flesh from the shells and drain it. In the bottom of each concave shell, place a little white pepper and a generous pinch of friend breadcrumbs. Replace the oysters in the shells; sprinkle them with grated Gruvere cheese and a few breadcrumbs. Do each with a small piece of butter. Brown under the grill (broiler) for 6-7 minutes. Serve with shrimp iritters or parmesan cheese straws.
Oysters a la Brolatti
Peach 12 oyster, drain them and remove the beards. Prepare a sauce with 2 chopped shallots toasted butter, the oyster beards, 2 tablespoons white wine and the strained liquid form the oysters. Reduce the sauce to about 3 tablespoons. Thicken the reduced sauces by whisking in 100 g (4 oz. ½ cup) butter. Season with pepper and lemon juice. Strain the sauce and keep it warm. Warm the oyster shells in the oven. Cook the oysters in butter in a covered pan for 1 minutes and then return them to their shells. Cover with the sauce and serve.
Oysters a la rhetaise
Open 24 oysters and put them in a saucepan with their own strained water, 2 shallots, 1 garlic clove and a knob and a knob of butter. Soften and reduce the liquid by half. Put this sauce into a pan with 4 tablespoons single (light) cream, a pinch of cayenen, a pinch of saffron and 2 teaspoons curry powder. blend everything together and let it reduce. Add a few drops of lemon juice. Arrange the oysters in individual gratin dishes, cover with the sauce and put under the grill (broiler) for 10 seconds.
Poach the oysters in their own water and them cool in the cooking liquid. Drain them and dry in a cloth. Leave them to soak for 30 minutes in a mixture of oil, lemon juice, pepper and salt, them dip them in batter. Cook in very hot oil until the fritters are puffed and golden and drain them at once on paper towels. Sprinkle with fine salt and serve with lemon quarters.
Open and poach 12 oysters. Prepare a white roux with 20 g (3/4 oz. ½ tablespoons) butter and 20 g (3/4 oz. 3 tablespoons) flour then moisten with 6 tablespoons oyster cooking liquid, 6 tablespoons milk and 6 tablespoons single (light) cream. Adjust the seasoning. Bring to the boil and cook for 10 minutes. Pass through a sieve. Add the debearded and sliced oysters and a pinch of cayenne.
Oysters in their shells (hot)
Poach the oysters, replace them in their shells and set these firmly into a layer of coarse salt in a baking tin (pan). brown in a preheated oven at 220°C (425°F, gas 7 ) for a few seconds (poaching can be omitted). They can then be served in the following ways.
§ a l’americaine Sprinkle with a few drops of lemon juice and a pinch of cayenne.
§ a la florentine Replace in their shells on a layer of buttered spinach, then mask with Mornay sauce, sprinkle with grated cheese and brown in the oven.
§ a la polonaize sprinkle with chopped hard-boiled egg yolk and chopped parsley over the moisten with noisetta butter mixed with fried breadcrumbs.
Open 24 oysters and put them into a sauté pan with the strained liquor from their shells. Add 200 ml (7 fl oz. ¾ cup) white wine. Bring just to the boil and take off the heat as soon as the liquid begins to bubble. Use a draining spoon to transfer the oyster to a plate and set them aside. Skim any scum off the liquid, then whisk in 1 small, finely diced carrot, I finely chopped spring onion (scallion) and 3 tablespoons finely crushed water biscuits (crackers) and bring to the boil. Simmer for 1 minute, whisking them add 200 ml (7 fl oz. ¾ oz. Cup) single (light) cream. Gradually whisk in 100 g (4 oz. ½ cup) butter cut into small pieces. The soup should be smooth and hot, but it must not simmer or boil as it will curdle. Replace the oyster and heat for a few seconds. Season with salt and pepper and a pinch of cayenne. Serve at once.
Oysters Robert Courtne
Chop 2 shallots. Put them in saucepan with 200 ml (7 fl oz. ¾ cup) champagne. Bring to the boil over a high heat and reduce the liquid by half. Let it call slightly. Open 36 oysters and put them into a saucepan with their trained liquid. Add a few drops of champagne and bring just to the boil. Drain the oysters and pour the cooking liquid into the first pan. gradually whisk in 200 g (7 oz., generous ¾ cup) butter. Add pepper and the juice of 1 lemon. Adjust the seasoning. Put the oysters into a serving dish or their shells, cover with the sauce and serve immediately.
Oysters with cider and winkles
Open 24 oysters and keep the deep halves of the shells. Prepare a stock with 1 litre (1 ¾ pints 4 1/3 cups) water, 1 carrot. 2 celery sticks, I tea spoon salt and 200 g (7 oz) winkles in this stock for 10 minutes then take them out of their shells. Skin 2 tomatoes and dice the flesh finely. Poach the oysters in their own water with 6 tablespoons cider. Remove the beards and keep the oysters warm. Prepare the sauce: chop 2 shallots and cook them in 200 ml (7 fl oz., ¾ cup) cider, then reduce this liquid by half. Add 6 tablespoons single (light) cram, reduce again and finish the sauce with 50 g (2 oz., ¼ cup) butter cut into small pieces. Add pepper, a few drops of lemon juice and the cooking liquid from the oysters. Adjust the seasoning. Snip the leaves from a small bunch of chervil. Heat the oyster she is, fill them with the poached and beard oysters and the winkles, and cover with the sauce. Sprinkle them with the diced tomato. Glaze them in a preheated oven at 240°C (475°F, gas 9) and just before serving added the chervil leaves.
Open the oysters and put them into a sauté pan and pour over them their own water, strained through a muslim (cheesecloth) sieve. Bring almost to the boil, removing the pan as soon as the liquid begins to simmer.
Steak with oysters
Open 8 oysters. Slice through a piece of beef fillet (sirloin) weighing about 300 g (11 oz.), without separating the 2 halves. Flatten it slightly, season with salt and pepper, brush the inside surfaces with a mild mustard and then sear it rapidly in a mixture of equal quantities of oil and butter. Flame it with brandy and keep hot. In another pan put the strained water from 4 oysters. I chopped garlic clove. I finely chopped shallot, a knob of butter , 3 tablespoons double (heavy) cream and 1 teaspoon brandy. Add pepper and reduce. Slip the oysters into the steak, press it closed and secure it with 1 or 2 cocktail sticks (toothpicks). In a small saucepan put the juices which have run from the meat, the reduced sauce, a few drops of Worcestershire sauce, pepper and 1 tablespoon brandy reduce again. Cover the steak with this sauce. Arrange the last 4 oysters on top of the meat. sprinkle with chopped parsley.
OYSTER KNIEF A strong knife for opening oysters. The blade, which is thick and blunt, is short and wide, forming a diamond shape, with a blunt point and a sturdy handle. It is designed for sliding between the upper and lower shells, and for twisting them apart at the hinge.
OYSTER MUSHROOM An earlike greyish-brown bracket mushroom. Pleurotus, which grows in clusters to provide grey, dark brown and yellow oyster mushrooms with a dedicate texture and flavour. Abumidant in autumn and winter the wild grey oyster mushroom, P ostreatus, is firm with a good flavour. P pudmonarus, the brown variety is found wild in spring and autumn. Its flavour is delicate and slightly musky.
Oyster mushroom coutes
Use a zester to pare the zest off 1 lemon in fine shreds. Mix the lemon zest with 1 finely chopped garlic cloves and 1 teaspoons finely chopped fresh tarragon. Cut fairly thick slices off a baguette or ciabatta loaf at an angle, brush them with a little olive oil and bake in a preheated oven at 200°C (400°F, gas 6 ) for about 20 minutes or until (lightly browned and crisp.
When the croutes are almost ready, heat a large knob of butter with a good layer of olive oil in a large sauté pan. add 1 teaspoon fennel seeds and allow them to sizzel gently for 1 minute, Trim and wipe small to medium oyster mushrooms; if using large mushrooms, cut them in half or quarters. Add the mushrooms to the pan. sprinkle in the lemon zest, garlic and tarragon, then cook for about 3 minutes over medium heat, turning the mushrooms occasionally. Stir about 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard into the pan juices between the mushrooms. Sprinkle with salt and pepper and a generous quantity of chopped fresh dill, then toss lightly
Spoon the oyster mushrooms on the baked croutes. Add wedges of lemon so that they can be squeezed over the mushrooms just before they are eaten serve at once.
OYSTER NUT The seeds of a ground from a tropical African vine of the Telfairia family. The large flat seeds are hussked and eaten raw, boiled or roasted. They have a high fat content and their oil is extracted for use as a cooking medium.
OYSTER SAUCE A sauce used in Chinese and South-East Asian cooking as a marinade and seasoning ingredient. Originally made from whole fermented oysters ground to a thick paste, the modern oyster sauce is made from oyster extract and thickened with starch. Soy sauce, sugar and caramel are the other ingredients that go to make this rich, salty and sweet, dark-coloured sauce. Oyster sauce may be used to marinate meat or poultry, or it can be added to stir-fired meat, poultry , vegetables or noodles. It is also used to flavour dipping sources.
OZANNE French chef (born 1846; died 1896). He was chef to the king of Greece and the author of Poesies gourmandes.